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Muscogee County, Georgia

"COLUMBUS STOCKADE BLUES"

 "COLUMBUS STOCKADE BLUES"

Location: 622 Tenth Avenue, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1985
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Historic Columbus Foundation, 1985

"Columbus Stockade Blues"
"Way Down in Columbus, Georiga, Wanna be back in Tennessee, Way down in Columbus Stockade, Friends have turned their backs on me."
The "Columbus Stockade Blues" by Thomas Darby and Jimmie Tarlton, was written and recorded in 1927. Many famous artists have since played the song in band, jazz, blue grass, country and blues arrangements. These two brick buildings served as jail and police headquarters from the 1850's to 1906. Then the buildings were joined and appear today much as they did when the song was written. The property was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.

 

"MA" RAINEY HOME

"MA" RAINEY HOME

Location: 805 Fifth Avenue, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1986
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Friends of Ma Rainey, 1986

"MA" Rainey Home
Gertrude Pridgett "Ma" Rainey, 1886-1939, famed "Mother of the Blues", lived in this house after 1935, during retirement in her native city. In 1904 she introduced "blues" as part of her traveling act. For 30 years her performances contributed to the growing popularity of this truly American music form. A pioneer female recording artist, she made 94 blues records for Paramount before 1928. At least 47 were her compositions. Managing her own band, she encouraged younger musicians including Louis "Satchmo" Armstrong, Fletcher Henderson, and Bessie Smith. Her grave is in nearby Porterdale Cemetery.

"THE FOLLY"

"THE FOLLY"

Location: 527 First Avenue, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1985
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Historic Columbus Foundation, 1985

 "The Folly"
A dwelling has existed at 527 First Avenue since 1831 when Alfred Iverson wed Julia Forsyth, daughter of Georgia Governor John Forsyth. Elected to Congress in 1846, Iverson served in the Senate until Georgia seceded from the Union. Two sons served in the Confederate Army, one as a Brigadier General and one as a Lt. Colonel. During the War Between the States, local contractor Leander May surely knew of O.S. Fowler's "A Home for All Seasons," and not only built the front octagonal but also converted the Iverson home into a smaller octagonal. "The Folly" became a National Historic Landmark of architecture in 1973.

 

1918 DIAMOND JUBILEE 1993 - CAMP BENNING/FORT BENNING

1918 DIAMOND JUBILEE 1993 - CAMP BENNING/FORT BENNING

Location: Corner of Macon and Dixon Roads, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1993
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Carl Patrick Foundation, 1993

SIDE 1:
1918 Diamond Jubilee 1993 - Camp Benning/Fort Benning
In October 1918, the Infantry School of Arms was established on 80 acres of land near here. Camp Benning, later Fort Benning, was named in honor of Confederate Infantry General Henry Lewis Benning, a Columbus resident. The camp's first commander was Col. Henry Eames. Constructed in just 7 days, the temporary camp had some 300 tents, mess halls, offices and warehouses. It was built under the supervision of Major J. Paul Jones. Hundreds of thousands of young men received their military training under the watchful eye of such legendary military leaders as Marshall, Eisenhower, Stilwell, Collins, and Patton here at the Infantry School.

SIDE 2:
1918 Diamond Jubilee 1993 Camp Benning/Fort Benning
Fort Benning's mission has always been to train infantrymen for their task of defending the nation. Fort Benning, now located south of Columbus on some 200,000 acres, is the free world's largest infantry training facility. Fort Benning has trained infantrymen who have fought with pride in al of the nation's military involvements for more than a half century. During World War II, the Cold War, the was in Korea, Vietnam, and Panama, as well as Desert Storm, infantrymen have fought and died to keep this nation free. This marker honors the infantrymen who have, for the past 75 years, trained at the Home of the Infantry.

700 BROADWAY

700 BROADWAY

Location: 700 Broadway, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: October 27, 1989
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Historic Columbus Foundation, 1989

700 Broadway
Situated on a lot that was part of Edward Lloyd Thomas's original 1827 plan of the city, this c.1870 Victorian townhouse is the only one of its design in Columbus. Among the families which inhabited this house was that of Stirling Price Gilbert (1862-1951), a Georgia Supreme Court Justice who served with distinction in that capacity for twenty years. Because of its desirable setting and architectural significance, this structure was acquired by the Historic Columbus Foundation in 1976 and became the Foundation's headquarters in 1977. The only two-story solid brick house in the Historic District, this property was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1969.

ALMA WOODSEY THOMAS

ALMA WOODSEY THOMAS

Location: 411 21st Street, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: November 30, 2010
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission, Historic Columbus Foundation, Inc. and Terry and Shannon Wilson

SIDE 1:
ALMA WOODSEY THOMAS
Alma Thomas, nationally known African-American artist, was the eldest of four daughters born to John Maurice Thomas and Amelia Whitaker Cantey. Highly cultured and socially involved, the Thomas family owned this Victorian home in the Rose Hill district, where Thomas was born and lived until the age of 15. Family tradition states that the manuscript for The Souls of Black Folks, by W.E.B. Dubois was typed on the front porch of the Thomas home by Alma Thomas' cousin, Inez, who was Dubois' secretary. In 1907, the Thomas family moved from Columbus to Washington, DC to escape racial tension and to seek better educational opportunities. For young Alma, who had demonstrated early artistic interests, the move meant attending a high school that offered art classes. Thomas later entered Howard University and was that school's very first fine arts graduate. 

SIDE 2:
ALMA WOODSEY THOMAS
Thomas worked as a teacher for over 30 years. Among her accomplishments were the organization of an Arts League and the development of a program to create art galleries within the schools of Washington, DC. Thomas retired from teaching in 1960 to focus on her own art, exploring color, nature, and abstraction as a member of the Washington Colorist School of Painting. Her work has been recognized by such prestigious institutions as the Whitney Museum, Corcoran Gallery, and the Smithsonian Institution. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration owns several of Thomas' paintings from her "Space" series, and her work can be found in major museums across the country, including The Columbus Museum.

BAKER HIGH SCHOOL 1943-1991

BAKER HIGH SCHOOL  1943-1991

Location: Levy Road and Benning Drive, Columbus, Georgia.
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: May 18, 2013                                                      

SIDE 1:
BAKER HIGH SCHOOL 1943-1991
Baker High School, originally Baker Village School, opened in 1943 to serve primarily military and Muscogee County students. It was named for Newton D. Baker, U.S. Sec.
of War during World War I. During World War II the school contained a canning plant used by growers of local "victory gardens." The class of 1946 donated a freestanding cornerstone. Former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich graduated from Baker in 1961. In 1964 Baker was the largest school in Georgia with 2,800 students.
(Image)
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Baker High School Alumni Association, 2013.

SIDE 2:
BAKER HIGH SCHOOL 1943-1991
In 1969 Donald Ray Johnston (class of '66) was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. The last class graduated in 1991. Baker served the community for nearly 50 years, producing graduates who excelled in academics, athletics, politics and the arts. In 2011 Baker was demolished. Many of the relationships formed during the school's existence still remain today. "In the pines of dear old Georgia" here stood the school we love. Baker may be gone, but she continues to ROAR!
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Baker High School Alumni Association, 2013.

BRIGADIER GENERAL HENRY LEWIS BENNING

BRIGADIER GENERAL HENRY LEWIS BENNING

Location: Within Linwood Cemetery, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: March 31, 2012
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and Lizzie Rutherford Chapter 60, United Daughters of the Confederacy 2012

Born in Columbia County, Georgia, on April 2, 1814, Henry L. Benning attended Franklin College prior to practicing law in Columbus. As a local attorney and state Supreme Court Judge, Benning played an active role in Georgia's secession in 1861. Entering the Civil War as Colonel of the 17th Georgia Infantry Regiment, he eventually became a brigadier general. He was wounded at the Battle of the Wilderness but continued his leadership of "Benning's Brigade" until the surrender at Appomattox. After the war, Benning returned to Columbus and resumed his law practice. He died on July 10, 1875. Fort Benning is named in his honor.

BULLARD-HART-SAMPSON HOUSE

BULLARD-HART-SAMPSON HOUSE

Location: 1408 Third Avenue, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: October 23, 1991
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Historic Columbus Foundation, 1991

Bullard-Hart-Sampson House
Built 1887 by Dr. William L. Bullard, Columbus physician and pioneer ear, eye, nose, and throat specialist, this house is a splendid example of Second Empire Victorian architecture. It was designed by L. E. Thornton of New York. The Bullard family lived here for 90 years. Their guests included President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Generals George Patton and George Marshall who dined on "Country Captain," a popular regional dish originated by the family cook, Arie Mullins. The house was listed in the National Register in 1977 and painstakingly restored in 1978 by new owners, Dr. and Mrs. Lloyd Sampson.

CARGILL-WRIGHT COMPANY/GARRETT AND SONS

CARGILL-WRIGHT COMPANY/GARRETT AND SONS

Location: 9th Street in the middle of the block between Front Avenue and Broadway
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: December 19, 2002
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission; the Stone Tree Group, LLC; and the Historic Columbus Foundation, Inc.; 2002

SIDE 1:
Cargill-Wright Company
Built in 1902, the Cargill-Wright Company, candy manufacturers and syrup refiners, were the first occupants of this building. The building was also home to Penick and Ford, and the Hardaway-Cargill Company, both syrup refiners, and Mitchell Hosiery Mills. In 1930, Sol Loeb Wholesale Grocery Company moved here from its original 12th Street location. One of ten original customers of the William Wrigley Company, Sol Loeb was the first wholesale company to sell a case of Red Devil lye and one of the original members of the Columbus Telephone Exchange. The company remained in the building until 1989.

SIDE 2:
Garrett and Sons Joseph Simpson Garrett, a whiskey, tobacco, and groceries merchant, constructed this building in 1883 for his business, Garrett and Sons. This wholesale business was regarded as the first of its kind in Columbus. Garrett served as Columbus postmaster from 1897 to 1905. Many businesses occupied this building between 1900 and 1934 when Simon Schwob, a tailor from Alsace-Lorraine, opened Schwob Manufacturing Company. With the "factory to consumer" approach, it became the largest manufacturer and retailer of menswear in the South. In 1978, Schwob Manufacturing became Joy Fashions and operated here until 1988.

CHURCH OF THE HOLY FAMILY

CHURCH OF THE HOLY FAMILY

Location: Twelfth Street at Fourth Avenue, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1992
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and members of the Holy Family Parish, 1992

SIDE 1:
Church of the Holy Family
This is the mother church of Roman Catholicism in this area, serving as the only Catholic church in Columbus from 1880 to 1958. The first Catholic church, the Church of Sts. Philip and James, was built in 1835 on what is now Chapel Street on one of the original lots designated for churches when Columbus was founded in 1828. Early missionary efforts from Sts. Philip and James reached Decatur and Terminus (now Atlanta), Macon, Eufaula, and Apalachicola, Fla. Missionaries visited these stations by rail, riverboat, oxcart or even by foot, quarterly or twice yearly. First resident pastor was Rev. James Graham.

SIDE 2:
Church of the Holy Family
The parish relocated to this site when the new church was dedicated May 12, 1880, and the name changed to The Church of The Holy Family. The Gothic-Byzantine structure was designed by architect Daniel Matthew Foley who was born in Dublin, Ireland. This church was built on property given by the Sisters of Mercy. The parish education building is located on the site where their convent and the school, St. Joseph's Academy, stood from 1870 to 1964. This is the only downtown church with a grave located on its grounds. Rev. Michael Cullinan, a pastor of Sts. Philip and James, was buried here just east of the church's main entrance.

COLORED DEPARTMENT OF THE CITY HOSPITAL/DOCTORS AND NURSES

COLORED DEPARTMENT OF THE CITY HOSPITAL/DOCTORS AND NURSES

Location: Corner of 17th Street & 8th Avenue (across from the backside of Linwood Cemetery) Columbus, Georgia.
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: March 9, 2004

SIDE 1:
Colored Department of the City Hospital
The first City Hospital, c. 1841, was located on the South Commons. Called the "Pest House," its clients were charity patients. The second City Hospital, c. 1894, was built across from Linwood Cemetery. Architectural details of the Victorian era hospital included a turret, porte-cochere and covered walkways from white and colored wards leading to a brick operating room, to the left of the building. Columbus' third hospital was built in 1915, with the Colored Department building located to the rear. The Colored Department was three-story brick structure completely fitted with the latest and most modern equipment, providing thirty beds.

SIDE 2:
Doctors and Nurses
The service of midwives in the early years was vital to the health of Columbus' colored patients. The Columbus Colored Medical Assocation was responsible for the building and maintenance of the Colored Department building in 1915. Dr. W.T. Ayers, Dr. E.J. Turner, Dr. D.W. Gallimore, Dr. M.L. Taylor and Dr. Thomas H. Brewer comprised the board. The Public Health Nurse Association began in 1917. The first colored nurse hired was Sarah V. Allen. Three other colored nurses were soon hired to fulfill the growing need. They were Dagmar Ferell, Mable Priester and Erlynne Oglen. The four nurses assisted in bedside care and home instruction.

COLUMBUS COLLEGE

COLUMBUS COLLEGE

Location: Warm Springs Road, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: May 11, 2009
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and Columbus State University 2008

SIDE 1:
COLUMBUS COLLEGE
Established through the efforts of the Columbus Chamber of Commerce, Board of Education and local residents, Columbus College opened as a junior college near this site in the renovated Shannon Hosiery Mill on September 22, 1958. The facility had 19 classrooms and opened with 15 faculty and 265 students. Dr. Thomas Y. Whitley was president; there were five academic programs. In 1963, the college was relocated to its permanent home on Gentian Boulevard. In 1965, it became a four-year institution. As the college grew, new majors and masters programs were added, and in 1996 the school officially became Columbus State University.

SIDE 2:
COLUMBUS COLLEGE
In 2008, 50 years after its founding, Columbus State University had 80 buildings on three sites (main campus, RiverPark and Oxford, England), 7,590 students, and 278 faculty members. The University offered 50 undergraduate programs and more than 35 masters or specialist programs. The Shannon Mill, where it all began, was razed in 1988, and the Hannan Elementary School was built in its place. More than 20,000 bricks from the mill's old smokestack were salvaged and cleaned by college faculty, staff and students and were used to line the inner arches of the Whitley Clock Tower, built in 1991 in the center of the CSU main campus.

COLUMBUS SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA

COLUMBUS SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA

Location: Located at 900 Broadway, Columbus, GA
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and Columbus Symphony Orchestra 2015

The second orchestra to be formed in America, the Columbus Symphony Orchestra was founded in 1855 by Herman Saroni, a German conductor and student of Mendelssohn, who was drawn to the city because it “had built for herself a reputation of culture.” Saroni’s orchestra was not only Columbus' first, but Georgia's first, and was established only 13 years after the New York Philharmonic, the oldest orchestra in America. The early orchestra was an ensemble of amateurs with weekly rehearsals. The modern CSO, incorporated in 1949, has evolved into the professional orchestra that exists today.

COLUMBUS' FIRST JEWISH CEMETERY

COLUMBUS' FIRST JEWISH CEMETERY

Location: Linwood Cemetery, Linwood Boulevard, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1998
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Historic Columbus Foundation, 1998

Columbus' First Jewish Cemetery
Since Biblical times when Abraham purchased land to bury his wife Sarah, it has been considered a religious obligation for Jews to set aside land for interring their dead. Often before congregations were established burial societies were formed to peform this sacred act. This site, established by Reform congregation Temple B'nai Isreal, is the first burial ground in Columbus for members of the Jewish faith. The first burial was in 1852. Louis Haiman, famous Civil War arms maker for the Confederacy, is interred here as are ancestors of many prominent Columbus families. Jewish burial traditions continue today in the city's Riverdale Cemetery.

COLUMBUS' FIRST THEATER/EARLY THEATRES

COLUMBUS' FIRST THEATER/EARLY THEATRES

Location: 828 Broadway, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 2002
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Historic Columbus Foundation, Inc., 2002

SIDE 1:
Columbus' First Theater
A pioneer theatrical entrepreneur, Sol Smith, 1801-1869, built many theaters in the Deep South, including New Orleans and Mobile and the first permanent theater west of the Mississippi in St. Louis, a city that he and partner Noah Ludlow dominated. Smith came to Columbus in 1831 to a primitive log structure in the 800 block of Broadway, which builder Asa Bates had completed in one week. "Pizzaro" was his company's first production there. Later, Smith toured Georgia's theater circuit accompanied by friend Mirabeau B. Lamar, founding editor of teh Columbus Enquirer and later second president of the Republic of Texas.

SIDE 2:
Early Theatres
The Springer Opera House, 1871, was the sixth legitimate theater in downtown Columbus. Previous were the Sol Smith, Crawford Street, Lyceum, Concert Hall and Temperance Hall. The early theatrical circuit followed the Old Federal Road through Columbus, as did many well known personalities like English novelist William Makepeace Thackeray and Swedish violinist Ole Bull. During an 1850 visit here by the Canning Company, its manager accidentally wounded John Wilkes Booth, an actor more notorious for assassinating President Abraham Lincoln at Washington's Ford Theater than praised for his histrionics.

DR. PEMBERTON'S COUNTRY HOME

DR. PEMBERTON'S COUNTRY HOME

Location: 712 Broadway, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: March 25, 1981
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Historic Columbus Foundation, 1980

Dr. Pemberton's Country Home
This house served as the residence of Dr. John S. Pemberton between 1860-1869. Dr. Pemberton enjoys international prestige as the originator of the formula for Coca-Cola. He moved into this house from the white frame cottage located at 11 Seventh Street. Originally located in the country, four miles north of Columbus, this structure was moved to this site in 1977 to afford it the protection of the Nationally Registered Columbus Historic District.

DR. THOMAS H. BREWER

DR. THOMAS H. BREWER

Location: 1000 block of First Avenue, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1989
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Black Entrepreneurs of Columbus, 1989

Dr. Thomas H. Brewer
A Pike County, Alabama native of African-American descent, Dr. Brewer was born November 16, 1894. His office was located at 1025 1/2 First Avenue. Brewer emerged as a chief spokesman for the civil rights of the Negro and was described by Roy Wilkins of the NAACP as a "fearless champion of the rights of his people." His goal to guarantee the Negro the right to vote throughout the State of Georgia and the South was achieved in the Primus King case in 1945. He was a leader of the local chapter of the NAACP and worked tirelessly for racial equality. Brewer was killed by gunshots February 18, 1956 near this site.

ERNEST & ROBERT WOODRUFF

Ernest Woodruff

Location: 411 21st Street, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: November 30, 2010
Erected by Historic Columbus Foundation, Inc. and The Historic Chattahoochee Commission 2015

SIDE 1:
ERNEST WOODRUFF
Ernest Woodruff was born in 1863 at 1420 2nd Avenue. He first worked for his father, George W. Woodruff, in his Columbus Empire Flour Mills, then as President of Joel Hurt’s Atlanta Streetcar Company, and as co-founder and President of the Trust Company of Georgia. In 1919, he created a syndicate to purchase Coca-Cola from the Candlers for $25 million. Although located in Atlanta, the reorganized Coca-Cola Company’s formative leaders were either Columbus natives or residents.

SIDE 2:
Robert Winship Woodruff
Son of Ernest Woodruff and Emily Winship, Robert Winship Woodruff was born in 1889 at 1414 2nd Avenue. By 1923 the new Coca-Cola Company experienced falling syrup sales and declining stock prices. According to company lore, Board Chairman W. C. Bradley hired Robert Woodruff as President by convincing the two strong-willed Woodruffs they could work together. Robert made Coke the most recognized product in the world. During World War II he took the company international and guaranteed every GI fighting overseas a nickel Coke.

EUGENE J. BULLARD

EUGENE J. BULLARD

Location: Talbotton Road, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: February 15, 2008
Erected by the Historic Columbus Foundation and Historic Chattahoochee Commission 2007

SIDE 1:
EUGENE J. BULLARD, 1895-1961
Bullard grew up in a small shotgun style house near this site. His father, William, was a laborer for the W. C. Bradley Company. Eugene completed the fifth grade at the 28th Street School. Shaken by the death of his mother, Josephine, and the near lynching of his father, Bullard left Columbus as a young teenager. In 1912, he stowed-away on a merchant ship out of Norfolk, Virginia. He spent the next 28 years of his life in Europe.

SIDE 2:
WORLD'S FIRST BLACK COMBAT AVIATOR
In World War I, Bullard earned the Croix de Guerre, France's highest military medal, as an infantryman at the Battle of Verdun. He later flew some 20 missions as a French combat pilot. In the interwar years, he was a musician, club owner, and celebrity in Paris. He married a Parisian society woman with whom he raised two daughters. When Germany conquered France in 1940, Bullard came to New York where he worked in obscurity for the rest of his life.

FIRST AFRICAN BAPTIST CHURCH

FIRST AFRICAN BAPTIST CHURCH

Location: Corner of 9th Street and 5th Avenue, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1994
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and First African Baptist Church, 1994

First African Baptist Church
The initial congregation of this church was formed by slaves who had attended Ephesus Baptist Church (later First Baptist), since its organization on February 14, 1829. When a new church was built in 1840 the slaves worshipped in the older building. White ministers served the African Baptist Church until 1862 when Rev. Harry Watson became the first black minister. The church was granted a site at Eleventh Street and Sixth Avenue by the Georgia General Assembly but moved to its current location at a cost of $75,000 in 1915. It was renamed First African Baptist Church under the leadership of Rev. J. H. Smith.

FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH

FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH

Location: Twelfth Street between Second and Third Avenue, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1989

First Baptist Church
On February 14, 1829, twelve persons met and organized under the name Ephesus Baptist Church of Columbus. The northern half of this block had been designated to be used for religious purposes in the state survey of 1828, and a small meeting house was built for the church on this site in 1830. This was replaced by a larger frame structure in 1840, the same year the General Assembly of Georgia granted a charter to the Baptist Church of Columbus. The name was changed to First Baptist Church of Columbus, Georgia, in 1896. The present sanctuary was constructed in 1859. The Doric columns and wings were added in this century.

FIRST BLACK PUBLIC SCHOOL

FIRST BLACK PUBLIC SCHOOL

Location: 1200 block of First Avenue, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1990
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Muscogee County School District, 1990

First Black Public School
Near here, in July 1872, the first local public school for black students opened. The school was the result of an action by the City Council directing the Trustees of the Columbus Public Schools to set up classes for blacks. For the first of these, the trustees rented Temperance Hall, built in 1849. Until the 1871 opening of the Springer Opera House, this had been the city's foremost theater. On its stage had appeared many of the opera, music and theater greats of the era. Among them was John Wilkes Booth. The school operated here until 1874 when it was moved to the former AME church on Sixth Avenue.

FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH

FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH

Location: Corner of First Avenue and Eleventh Street, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1990
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the First Presbyterian Church, 1990

SIDE 1:
First Presbyterian Church
The Presbyterians were granted one of the original church lots in the 1828 Columbus plan. It was on the north side of Chapel St. between Second and Third Avenues. The fourteen charter members, received in 1830, were: Edward Featherston, William Root, James S. Norman, Richard T. Marks, David Dean, Thomas B. McCreary, John Johnson, Mrs. Jane L. Marks, Mrs. Leah J. Norman, Mrs. Harriet A. Root, Mrs. Miriam Dean, Mrs. Sarah DeGraffenried, Mrs. Eliza Bullock, Miss Rebecca Featherston. In 1831 the congregation was granted a lot at the northeast corner of Second Ave. and Tenth St., where services were held for thirty years. The move to Eleventh St. and First Ave. came in 1862.

SIDE 2:
First Presbyterian ChurchThe First Presbyterian Church building on the northeast corner of Eleventh St. and First Ave. was dedicated in 1862. In 1891 the sanctuary was severely damaged by fire. It reopened for services in 1893. After the fire, the "city" clock was placed in the bell tower. The design of the building is Romanesque. Wings were constructed in 1925 and a free-standing chapel in 1952. Renovations were made in 1969 and an addition in 1974. The General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, U.S. was hosted by First Church in 1982, when the vote to reunite the U.S. and U.S.A. churches was taken. Placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.

FIT FOR MAN AND BEAST

FIT FOR MAN AND BEAST

Location: Broadway and 10th Street, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 2008
Erected by Historic Columbus Foundation, Inc. and Historic Chattahoochee Commission 2008

This watering fountain at Broadway and 10th Street represents the last one of several located in each block down Broadway. It is Columbus' oldest public fountain, dating back to the earliest days of the city. Called the Man and Beast fountain, it contains three watering bowls, one at street level for dogs, a large one in the middle for horses, and a medium-sized one near the top for people. Although we no longer go to public fountains to collect drinking water, fountains offer our community an identity and sense of history in our public spaces.

 

FORTSON HOUSE 1858/THE FORTSON COMMUNITY

FORTSON HOUSE 1858/THE FORTSON COMMUNITY

Location: 11000 Fortson Road, Fortson, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: June 14, 2008
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission, Historic Columbus Foundation, and Dr. and Mrs. Mark R. Fortson 2008

SIDE 1:
FORTSON HOUSE 1858
Thomas and Elizabeth Almond settled in this area with her orphaned brother Thomas Daniel Fortson in the 1830s. In 1858, as a prominent farmer, Fortson built this Greek Revival Georgian Cottage, its surrounding outbuildings and cotton terraces. He also ran a gristmill on the nearby Heiferhorn Creek during the Civil War. His son, Thomas Willis Fortson, established a general store and was appointed Station Agent and Postmaster for Fortson, Georgia in 1885. The Fortson House has remained continously in the family and was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1999.

SIDE 2:
THE FORTSON COMMUNITY
Originally called Blanchard's Crossing, this area was renamed Fortson in 1885 when the Columbus & Rome Railroad built a station on Fortson property. Thomas Willis Fortson established the Fortson General Store and Post Office, housed from 1904 in the brick building adjacent to the tracks. Luther Getzen Fortson operated the store and post office until 1963. Across the tracks from the store, the Getzen House, built in 1882 for T.W. Fortson's sister, was the home of his in-laws, Samuel Luther and Fannie Mealing Getzen, who organized the Getzen Memorial Baptist Church in 1904.

 

FOURTH STREET BAPTIST CHURCH

FOURTH STREET BAPTIST CHURCH

Location: Fourth Street, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1995
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Historic Columbus Foundation, 1995

Fourth Street Baptist Church
In 1900 the Mt. Canaan Baptist Church was established under the leadership of the Reverends John Bellamy and Willis Carter when a few men and women met under a fig tree on Third Avenue to worship. In 1901 Rev. Bellamy separated from Mt. Canaan to organize a group of fifteen members who worshipped under a brush arbor on Fifth Street as New Mt. Canaan Baptist Church. Rev. Bellamy resigned as pastor in 1901 and was replaced by Rev. Pearson under whose leadership a fifty dollar tract of land was purchased. A shelter was built for worship and became Fourth Street Baptist Church.

 

FRIENDSHIP BAPTIST CHURCH

FRIENDSHIP BAPTIST CHURCH

Location: Sixth Avenue between Eight and Ninth Streets, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1992

Friendship Baptist Church
Founded in 1892 at 4th Avenue and 6th Street, the church moved to its permanent home here in January of 1897. The first minister was Rev. J. S. Kelsey, who served the church from 1897-1901. The present building was completed under his leadership. It was enlarged and improved during the long ministry of Rev. R. K. Paschel, 1901-1944. A dream of Rev. Paschel was realized in 1950 with the completion of the educational annex named in his honor. Four other pastors served during the church's first century: A. W. Fortson, 1944-1968; W. H. Smith, 1968-1974; James H. Carter, 1974-1978; and Emmett S. Aniton, Jr., 1979-present. "In this church on the corner, everybody is somebody."

GEORGE PARKER SWIFT I

GEORGE PARKER SWIFT I

Location: Broadway at 14th Street, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 2001
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Columbus Consolidated Government, 2001

SIDE 1:
George Parker Swift I
George Parker Swift, I, pioneer cotton manufacturer of Georgia, was born Spet. 1, 1815, in Fairhaven, Massachusetts. He moved to Georgia in the early 1840's and started the Tribune Mills at Wynmanville, Upson County, first making cotton thread and yarn, then expanding into cotton weaving. Colonel Swift moved to Columbus in 1865 and in 1867 founded the Muscogee Mills, now the Muscogee Manufacturing Company which has been in continuous operation by the same family owners and has grown to be one of the largest manufacturers of cotton towels and tickings in the world.

HIGH UPTOWN HISTORIC DISTRICT/GARRETT-BULLOCK-DeLAY HOUSE

HIGH UPTOWN HISTORIC DISTRICT/GARRETT-BULLOCK-DeLAY HOUSE

Location: Third Avenue at Fourteenth Street, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1991
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Historic Columbus Foundation, 1991.

SIDE 1:
High Uptown Historic District
This area known as "High Uptown" contains historic residential structures that were built by affluent business and communtiy leaders of the 19th and early 20th centuries. These homes are prototypes of architectural styles in vogue from the 1850's until about 1910. Many of the district's most significant structures are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. This historic district was created in 1986 by the city council of the Columbus Consolidated Government.

SIDE 2:
Garrett-Bullock-DeLay House
A fine example of Queen Anne style architecture, this High Victorian mansion was built in 1881 by Col. Joseph S. Garrett (C.S.A.), Columbus merchant, postmaster, and planter. The house was sold in 1910 to Osborn C. Bullock, a Columbus banker and business leader, whose family resided here until the death of his last surviving daughter, Margaret Bullock Schaefer, in 1985. In 1986, Mr. and Mrs. Jerry DeLay purchased this Columbus landmark from the Historic Columbus Foundation and restored it to its original state of Victorian elegance. This structure was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.

HISTORIC RIVERDALE CEMETERY

HISTORIC RIVERDALE CEMETERY

Marker Dedication or Erection Date: 2008
SIDE 1: Historic Riverdale Cemetery
Erected in memory of Lawrence S. Rosenstrauch by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and Historic Columbus Foundation, Inc. 2008

Side 1:
In 1890, availability of lots at Linwood Cemetery, the oldest institution of the Columbus city government, was becoming scarce. At that time, the city acquired additional property on 10th Avenue which became Riverdale Cemetery. The brick building near the entrance, erected in 1915, originally included a chapel, housing for the city sexton and a bell tower atop an arched passageway for funeral processions. Many citizens who have contributed significantly to the development and history of Columbus are buried here.

SIDE 2:
Historic Riverdale Cemetery
Through the years, special sections have been marked at the cemetery, including the American Legion for veterans of the armed forces, a separate area for Spanish-American War veterans highlighted by a monument to the Maine, two sections for members of the Jewish community, and an area of miniature lots called 'Baby Land'. In addition, a monument resembling a circus tent was placed by the Kennedy Circus in Section 1 to memorialize those killed in a 1915 accident involving a circus train from the Con T. Kennedy Shows and a Central of Georgia passenger train.

HOLSEY CHAPEL CHRISTIAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH

HOLSEY CHAPEL CHRISTIAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH

Location: 718 8th Street, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: December 19, 2004
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and Holsey Chapel Christian Methodist Episcopal Church, 2004.

SIDE 1:
In 1884, a group of black citizens banded together to organize a church. They appealed to the Commissioners of Columbus, Georgia, and obtained a lot on Eighth Street. The first church was completed in 1886 and called Everett Chapel after Newton Everett, one of the original founders and trustees. In 1894, the church was renamed Holsey Chapel, after Bishop Lucius H. Holsey, who played a vital role in the organization of the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church. In 1915, Holsey Chapel was destroyed by a storm. A new building was completed in 1919, along with a parsonage. The current brick structure was built in 1946.

SIDE 2:
Holsey Chapel Christian Methodist Episcopal Church
In 1888, Reverend P. W. Powell became pastor of Everett Chapel. When Everett Chapel was renamed Holsey Chapel in 1894, Revered C. T. Shatten served the congregation. Revered Loyd McAfee was pastor from 1904 until 1919. Other pastors have included the Reverends Samuel Dunbar, Lewis Pearcey, Talton Cunningham, Needham Means, John Cochran, Edward Roberts, Frank Rowe and John Parham. Holsey Chapel experienced its greatest growth under the leadership of Edward D. Bryson, who was followed by L. P. Napier. Under the leadership of Reverend Allen Page, III, Holsey Chapel remains strong because of effective leadership and dedicated membership.

JEWISH SECTION OF RIVERDALE CEMETERY

JEWISH SECTION OF RIVERDALE CEMETERY

Location: Riverdale Cemetery, 1000 Victory Drive, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: May 9, 2009
In memory of Laurette Rothschild Rosenstrauch by Lawrence S. Rosenstrauch, Jr., Ann Rosenstrauch Kingsbury, the Historic Chattahoochee Commission, and the Historic Columbus Foundation, Inc. 2009

SIDE 1:
JEWISH SECTION OF RIVERDALE CEMETERY
The earliest recorded Jewish burials in Columbus were in historic Linwood Cemetery and in the Raphael Moses family cemetery, Esquiline. When the City of Columbus established Riverdale Cemetery in 1890, Temple Israel purchased a piece of this property which became known as the "Jewish Section." City Council notes of October 8, 1891 show that Mr. H. Sternberg, Treasurer of Temple Israel, paid fifty dollars as the first installment for half of Section Two. In 1896, the Ladies Aid Society noted that the Temple voted for a fence to be erected around this section of Riverdale Cemetery.

SIDE 2:
JEWISH SECTION OF RIVERDALE CEMETERY
Two other sections in Riverdale, both owned by the Shearith Israel Congregation, are also set aside for Jewish burials. A brick wall with a wrought iron gate, located on the northeast boundary of the property, marks one of these areas. Within its confines is the Kravtin Garden, given in 1997 in memory of Maurice Kravtin. Temple Israel and Shearith Israel still own and maintain all three Jewish sections. Many generations of prominent Columbus Jewish families are buried here.

JOHN McILHENNY HOME

JOHN McILHENNY HOME

Location: 524 Broadway, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1985
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Historic Columbus Foundation, 1985

John McIlhenny Home
John McIlhenny, Civil Engineer, City Council member and Mayor of Columbus 1873-74, lived in this house in the 1860's. Mr. McIlhenny is recognized as the father of the Columbus public school system. Authorized the Georgia Legislature in December of 1866, Columbus' was the first city-supported school system in the state. Mr. McIlhenny was noted for his invention of the McIlhenny Gas Meter. In 1877, he moved to Philadelphia where his grandson, Henry P. McIlhenny, beame a world-renowned art collector. In 1983 the Historic Columbus Foundation moved the house from 9444 2nd Ave., to this location because it was threatened by demolition.

LEONARD SPRING - Columbus' Original Source of Water

LEONARD SPRING - Columbus' Original Source of Water

Location: Opposite 2001 Country Club Road (east of Cherokee Avenue), Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1989
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Columbus Water Works, 1989

Leonard Spring - Columbus' Original Source of Water
In 1839 citizens first called for the development of a water works system. On this site is located the original source of water for drinking and general household use for Columbus. Beginning in 1844, Leonard Spring, with a discharge of 200,000 gallons a day, provided water to the City through a series of wooden pipes. Water was piped to Broad Street by way of Randolph Street, now known as 12th Street. In the 1880's city water was obtained from Lee County, Alabama. The present water plant on River Road was built in 1916. Since 1844, an ample supply of water has been one of Columbus' greatest assets and a vital fuel for its growth.

LIBERTY HILL BAPTIST CHURCH

LIBERTY HILL BAPTIST CHURCH

Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 2005
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and Liberty Hill Baptist Church, 2005

Liberty Hill Baptist Church
Organized in 1869 by slaves, the first church building was built on land donated by Mrs. Emma Jones and Mrs. Nora Felton. The church was called the Bush Arbor Church because the construction and materials used. Reverend Phil Owens was the first pastor. A permanent church was built in 1875. It was a white wooden structure that served as the first school in the area as well as the meeting place for the International Benevolent Society. Renamed Liberty Hill Baptist Church, Inc. in 1956, the church continues to grow and is known as "The Little Church with the Big Heart."

NEHI and Royal Crown Cola

NEHI and Royal Crown Cola

Location: 411 21st Street, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: November 30, 2010
Erected by Historic Columbus Foundation, Inc. and The Historic Chattahoochee Commission 2015

SIDE 1:
NEHI and Royal Crown Cola
In 1905, a new cola drink was originated in the basement of the wholesale grocery business at this location, where Claud A. Hatcher, a pharmacist, began formulating beverages. His concoctions included Royal Crown Ginger Ale, Cream Soda and various Melo fruit drinks. As these products gained popularity, Hatcher created Union Bottling Works and in 1911 moved the business to the corner of 10th Street and 9th Avenue. Chero Cola was introduced in 1912. By 1925 there were several hundred franchised bottlers throughout the South and Midwest.

SIDE 2:
NEHI and Royal Crown Cola
Nehi, a line of soft drinks touted to be “Knee High” in great flavor, was introduced in 1924 and quickly grew in popularity. Royal Crown Cola was launched in 1934, becoming the flagship brand of the company. As the first to use blind taste-tests and movie star endorsers such as Bob Hope, Lucille Ball and John Wayne, RC became an American classic. RC was the first cola produced in cans and the first local company listed on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1962 the company introduced Diet Rite, the first calorie-free cola. .

NINTH STREET BRANCH YMCA

NINTH STREET BRANCH YMCA

Location: 903 6th Avenue, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 2002
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission, Alfonso Biggs, and the Historic Columbus Foundation, Inc., 2002

Side 1:
Ninth Street Branch YMCA
In 1901, George Foster Peabody and his brothers made an offer to the colored men and boys of Columbus to build a YMCA on the condition they raise $1,000, purchase a building lot and get membership of 300 men. On Sunday, April 28, 1901, a mass meeting at St. James AME Church was held and the Ninth Street Branch YMCA was founded with 178 men. About 1902 the lot at 903 Sixth Avenue was purchased. Mr. Peabody and his brothers donated $20,000 to the colored people of Columbus to build the YMCA in 1907. At that time, it was the second modern Negro YMCA building in the country and the first in the South.

SIDE 2:
Ninth Street Branch YMCA
The Ninth Street Branch YMCA was dedicated on Tuesday, October 8, 1907. The toastmaster for the evening was Dr. M.L. Taylor and the featured speaker was Dr. Booker T. Washington. Gertrude Pridgett "Ma" Rainey, accompanied by pianist Leila Price, performed "Lift Every Voice and Sing." This song would later become the Negro National Athem. The Ninth Street Branch YMCA entertained over 100,000 men, boys, soldiers and visitors during its existence. From 1907 until its demolition in December of 1963, more than 4,000 men held active memberships in the Association.

Pemberton Cottage

PEMBERTON COTTAGE

Location: Broadway at 14th Street, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 2001
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission, Inc and The Historic Chattahoochee Commision 2015

SIDE 1:
From 1855 to 1860 Dr. John S. Pemberton, originator of the formula for Coca-Cola, lived in this house with his family. Dr. Pemberton and his wife Ann Eliza Clifford Lewis had one son, Charles. As a druggist in Columbus, he originated several medicines before he moved to Atlanta in 1869. Dr. Pemberton died in 1888 and is buried in Linwood Cemetery. In 1972, Historic Columbus and the Coca-Cola Company partnered to save and restore the home. Originally located at 1017 3rd Avenue, the house and an outbuilding were moved to this site. The home served as a house museum until 2013.

Side 2
IMAGE
Dr. Pemberton and his family
Image
In 1972, Historic Columbus took the house down to its original studs in order to restore its original shape.
Image
The Victorian details and a half-story added by a later owner of the home were removed when the home was moved to this site.

PEMBERTON'S CHEMICAL HOUSE

PEMBERTON'S CHEMICAL HOUSE

Location: 93 Broad Street in 1865, determining accurate current day location
Erected by Historic Columbus Foundation, Inc. and The Historic Chattahoochee Commission 2015

SIDE 1:
PEMBERTON'S CHEMICAL HOUSE
In November 1865, Dr. John S. Pemberton announced, “the storm of war was over and commerce was bright.” He was launching his largest enterprise to date, the Eagle Drug & Chemical House, as part of J. S. Pemberton & Co., wholesale druggists. His partner Dr. Austin M. Walker provided capital, while Pemberton went to New York City and personally selected $20,000 worth of stock. His ads detail the chemicals, drugs, fancy goods, and perfumes from Paris and Persia, and furniture for druggists and physicians sold by the establishment

SIDE 2:
PEMBERTON'S CHEMICAL HOUSE
Dr. Pemberton and chemist William J. Land tested the purity of ingredients, mixed drugs, and developed new products. Pemberton’s Columbus creations included “Sweet Southern Bouquet” perfume, Globe Flower Cough Syrup, Stillingia, “a blood purifier,” Indian Queen Hair Dye, Triplex Liver Pills, and Prescription 47-11 for rheumatism. His tonic, French Wine of Coca, became Coca-Cola. After moving to Atlanta, Pemberton opened extensive labs there. Later Pemberton’s laboratories were incorporated into the Georgia Department of Agriculture.

PEMBERTON'S DRUGSTORES, 1857-69

PEMBERTON'S DRUGSTORES, 1857-69

Location: 1033 Broadway, Columbus, GA 31901
Erected by Historic Columbus Foundation, Inc. and The Historic Chattahoochee Commission 2015

SIDE 1:
PEMBERTON'S DRUGSTORES, 1857-69
Dr. John S. Pemberton, physician, pharmacist, and manufacturing chemist, was one of many druggists in Columbus. Pemberton was a partner in six firms from 1857-1869. His partners included Robert Carter, another druggist, and Nathaniel Nuckolls, a wealthy local businessman who supplied only capital for their store in Cook’s Hotel. All of Pemberton’s drug stores had a soda fountain dispensing sparkling drinks for ten fruit extracts with soda water. His French Wine of Coca, later Coca-Cola, was marketed as a tonic and a soda fountain drink.

SIDE 2:
PEMBERTON'S DRUGSTORES, 1857-69
These ads reveal what patent medicines were being sold in drugstores at the time. The map shows the locations of Dr. Pemberton’s drugstores in downtown Columbus.

PHILIP THOMAS SCHLEY

PHILIP THOMAS SCHLEY

Location: Third Avenue at Fifteenth Street, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1987
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Historic Columbus Foundation, 1987

Philip Thomas Schley
This house was built circa 1840 on the present site of First Presbyterian Church, by Philip Thomas Schley. Capt. Schley came to Columbus in 1834 at the request of his brother, Georgia Gov. William Schley, to command the Muscogee Blues, a militia company active in the Indian Wars. In 1858 Capt. Schley sold his lot to the Presbyterians and had the house dismantled, moved and rebuilt at this site, 1445 Second Avenue. The house was later owned by the family of James H. Warner, who had been chief engineer of the Confederate Naval Iron Works in Columbus.

PHILIP TRAMMELL SHUTZE, 1890-1982

PHILIP TRAMMELL SHUTZE, 1890-1982

Location: Fourth Avenue between Eleventh & Twelfth Streets, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1992
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission, the Historic Columbus Foundation, and the West Georgia Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, 1992

SIDE 1:
Philip Trammell Shutze, 1890-1982
A Columbus native whose birthplace stood close to this site, Shutze became one of the most prominent American architects of the twentieth century. After graduating from the Georgia Institute of Technology and from Columbia University with degrees in architecture, Shutze studied for several years at the American Academy in Rome, Italy. In the mid-1920's, as a partner in Atlanta's premier architectural firm, Shutze began work on a series of commercial and residential structures that would bring him acclaim from throughout the design world. The Swan House (1926), Shutze's most extraordinary expression of the classical ideal, serves as the headquarters of the Atlanta Historical Society. Shutze is buried in Columbus' historic Linwood Cemetery.

RADCLIFF SCHOOL

RADCLIFF SCHOOL

Location: Across the street from Nazareth Baptist Church, 526 Radcliff Avenue, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1993
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission, Muscogee County School District and Radcliffonians, 1993

Radcliff School
In the fall of 1914 Radcliff School was organized in Allen Temple A.M.E. Church. At that time it was known as Wynnton Hill School. J. L. Bond was principal and the first head teacher was Mrs. S. A. Cody. When the building burned, the school was relocated to Wynnton Hill Baptist Church and later Primitive Baptist Church. In 1929, the school name was changed to Radcliff after a new building was erected on land purchased through a grant from the Rosenwald Foundation. Mrs. Cody was principal with an enrollment of 100 pupils. Radcliff became a junior high in 1940 and, in 1944, became the second senior high school in Columbus for blacks. Mr. B. F. Mosely was principal from 1935-1952 and Dr. M. A. Clarke and Mr. B. T. Stafford followed him. Radcliff was destroyed by fire in 1971.

RICHARD CHRISTMAS, c.1763 - 1848

RICHARD CHRISTMAS, c.1763 - 1848

Location: In a private cemetery in a subdivision called Liberty Hall off County Line Road, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1987
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Historic Columbus Foundation, 1987

Richard Christmas, c.1763-1848
A veteran of the North Carolina militia in the American Revolution, Christmas is buried here with his wife, Mary Roberson, his son, Nathaniel G. Christmas, and other descendants. Living then in Greene County, Ga., he drew a land lot nearby in present Harris County in the Land Lottery of 1827. He acquired property and moved here before 1835. His home was to the northeast on County Line Road. A marker honoring his military service was placed on his grave by the Button Gwinnett Chapter, D.A.R. with special ceremonies in February 1929.

ROSE HILL/MOTT-FOX-HUGULEY HOUSE

ROSE HILL/MOTT-FOX-HUGULEY HOUSE

Location: 2027 - 6th Avenue, Columbus, Georgia.
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: 2013                                                      

SIDE 1:
ROSE HILL
The Rose Hill community received its name from resident Mrs. James Carter Cook, who suggested it in reference to the numerous area homes with lovely rose gardens. The community traces its origins prior to the Civil War when several large estates occupied the area. During the latter part of the 19th century, these estates were sub-divided. A mix of affluent and middle class residents occupied the homes built afterward and shaped the community. Victorian is the predominant architectural style in Rose Hill. In the late 20th century, the area became the home of several medical offices.                                                                                                                                               Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission, Colonel and Mrs. Terry Wilson, and Historic Columbus, 2013.

SIDE 2:
MOTT-FOX-HUGULEY HOUSE-1991
Located at 2027 6th Avenue, this home and carriage house was built by J. Randolph and A.E. Mott in 1892. The Motts lived in the house briefly before selling the property to their son, James Randolph Mott, and his wife, Annie Mott. For most of the 20th century, Jacob and Kathryn Fox owned the house. In 1950 owner M.C. Huguley divided it into apartments. In 2008, Col. and Mrs. Terry Wilson rehabilitated the home for offices. The house is an excellent example of the Queen Anne style, featuring an asymmetrical plan, wrap-around porch, and ornate details.
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission, Colonel and Mrs. Terry Wilson, and Historic Columbus, 2013.

SAINT JOHN AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH

SAINT JOHN AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH

Location: Fifth Avenue, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1994
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and Faith Tabernacle Full Gospel Outreach Church, 1994

This one-story Victorian Gothic structure dates back to 1870. The cornerstone of the church indicates that the building was constructed in 1870, with the basement added in 1890. This suggests that the original wooden church was raised, a basement added, and then the entire structure bricked-in. St. John AME Church was originally named St. John Chapel and its congregation descended from tht of St. James AME Church in Columbus. The congregation was forced to move to a new site when the historic structure was severly damaged by a tornado. The Faith Tabernacle Full Gospel Outreach Church bought the St. John AME Church in 1993, committed to its restoration.

SAMUEL COOPER 1754-1841 - SOLDIER--AMERICAN REVOLUTION

SAMUEL COOPER 1754-1841 - SOLDIER--AMERICAN REVOLUTION

Location: Northeast corner of Miller and Warm Springs Roads, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1990
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission; Coweta Falls Chapter, Sons of the American Revolution; Oglethorpe, George Walton, and Button Gwinett Chapters of the Daughters of the American Revolution 1990.

Samuel Cooper 1754-1841 - Soldier--American Revolution
Born in Maryland, Cooper served in the South Carolina Militia during the American Revolution and participated in battles at Brandywine, Germantown and Stony Point. After the War he moved to Putnam County, Georgia and later to Muscogee County where he had drawn 202 1/2 acres in the 1827 Lottery. A member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, he is buried with his family in a cemetery which was located in front and south of his home. His last words were, "Jesus is Good." Abandoned many years, the cemetery was reclaimed and restored in May 1989.

 

SECONDARY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL

SECONDARY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL

Location: 1112 29th Street, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: May 19, 2003
 Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission, the Historic Columbus Foundation and School Alumni, 2003

SIDE 1:
Proposed in 1904 by Carleton B. Gibson, Columbus School Superintendent, the Secondary Industrial School is regarded as the nation's first public coeducational industrial high school. G. Gunby Jordan, then President of the School Board, and his son R. C. Jordan donated the land and were instrumental in developing the school. The school was centrally located in Waverly Terrace, a community planned and developed by the Jordan Company, and completed in 1906. The school's name changed to Columbus Industrial High School in 1912 and again in 1939 to Columbus Junior High School.

SIDE 2:
SECONDARY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL
Designed by the Atlanta firm of J. W. Golucke, the building is of monumental style and scale. Using brick and stone to illustrate the Neo-Classical details, this architectural design was popular for public buildings at the turn of the nineteenth century. The building's appearance has remained essentially unchanged since its opening with only minor alterations and an addition of a rear gymnasium in the 1930s. The interior layout is three floors over an English basement, or "Quincy Plan." Golucke was best known for designing twenty courthouses in Georgia. This structure represents one of his few designs that is not a courthouse.

 

SIXTH AVENUE PASSENGER STATION

SIXTH AVENUE PASSENGER STATION

Location: 1200 Sixth Avenue, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1985
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Historic Columbus Foundation, 1985

Sixth Avenue Passenger Station
The Central of Georgia Railroad's Station, designed by Bruce and Morgan of Atlanta, GA, was erected in 1901. Featuring massive granite arches, it served as the transportation hub of the city for over 70 years. Threatened with demolition in 1984 this landmark, on the Eastern perimeter of the Original City, was saved through the leadership of the Historic Columbus Foundation and the generosity of the Southern Railway System and the Consolidated Government of Columbus and its citizens. The property was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.

ST. JAMES AME CHURCH

ST. JAMES AME CHURCH

Location: 1002 Sixth Avenue, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1985
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission, St. James AME Church, Mrs. Carlton B. Franklin and Fred D. Franklin, Jr., Familes 1985

St. James AME Church
St. James African Methodist Epsicopal Church was organized in 1863. The present church is built on land granted by act of the Georgia Legislature in 1873. It was erected in 1876 under the pastorate of Rev. Wesley J. Gaines, at a cost of $20,000. Rev. Gaines was the first pastor on record of the church. The graceful central tower and flanking turrets were added in 1886 during the ministry of Rev. L.L. Thomas. St. James AME Church ranks as the second oldest church of the domination in Georgia.

TEMPLE ISRAEL

TEMPLE ISRAEL

Marker Dedication or Erection Date: 2005
Erected by The Historic Chattahoochee Commission and The Historic Columbus Foundation, Inc., 2005

SIDE 1:
In 1854 twenty Columbus families banded together to form congregation BNai Israel, later known as Temple Israel, one of the first Jewish congregations in Georgia. For almost one hundred years religious services were held on this site, first in a wooden structure followed by a classical cathedral style edifice reflecting Synagogue architecture of that era. This two story brick Temple, built in 1886 was dedicated September 2, 1887. The last service held in this location was on March 8, 1958. The congregation then moved into a contemporarybuilding on Wildwood Avenue.

This marker is dedicated in memory of Alan Friend Rothschild by his sisters and brothers.

SIDE 2:
TEMPLE ISRAEL
Records exist of Jewish births, marriages, deaths and burials in Columbus following the citys founding in 1828. In 1875, Temple Israel became a founding member of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, the reform movements umbrella organization. Temple Israel has continuously functioned as a reform congregation with religious, educational and community outreach programs. The Temples 150th anniversary was celebrated in 2004. This marker is dedicated in memory of Alan Friend Rothschild by his sisters and brothers.

THE BRADLEY OLMSTED GARDEN

THE BRADLEY OLMSTED GARDEN

Location: On the grounds of the Columbus Museum, 1251 Wynnton Road, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: June 7, 2013
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Columbus Museum, 2013

"The Columbus Museum's Bradley Olmsted Garden was designed for homeowner W.C. Bradley by the Olmsted Brothers firm of Massachusetts. Frederick Law Olmsted, the famed American landscape architect, founded the firm. Of the thirteen residential projects the Olmsted firm worked on in Georgia, including others in Columbus, the Bradley garden is widely recognized as the most substantial and significant. Its shaded ravine, formal and informal pools, cascading waterfall, pecan grove, and Japanese yew and crape myrtle walkways typified the more naturalistic gardens that became popular after the close of the Victorian era. Azaleas, camellias, dogwood, iris, roses, and forget-me-nots were among the many blooms planted between 1925 and 1928. Bradley had a great interest in the garden and corresponded frequently with William B. Marquis, the Olmsted firm's lead Columbus designer. At Bradley's request, the firm transformed an 1880s trolley station located on the property into a pool house. It is the only remaining structure from that line. The Bradley Olmsted Garden is part of the Wynn's Hill-Overlook Historic District, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

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THE CEDARS

THE CEDARS

Location: 2039 13th Street, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1994
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and Banks descendants, 1994

The Cedars
In 1836, John Banks and his wife, the former Sarah Watkins, both natives of Elbert Co., Ga., moved to Columbus, bought this property (then totalling 265 acres) in the fashionable suburb of Wynnton and began construction of this Greek Revival house. Already a successful lawyer and merchant, Banks became involved in banking and manufacturing, the operation of large plantations south of the city, and local philanthropy including the co-founding of the Wynnton School on his property. The Cedars, his family residence, boasts 18-inch thick exterior brick walls and interior faux graining and marbling. It has remained continuously in the Banks family.

THE ELMS

THE ELMS

Location: 1846 Buena Vista Road, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: February 20, 2004
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission, Mrs. Maxwell C. Harden and the Historic Columbus Foundation, Inc., 2004.

SIDE 1:
In 1844, Lambert Spencer built a simple Greek Revival home detailed with Doric columns and acanthus leaves. In 1868, Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd Bowers enlarged and beautified the home. Mr. Bowers added two hexagonal wings and hired an itinerant painter to paint three ceiling frescoes. Mrs. Bowers, with the help of an English gardener, laid out a formal butterfly-shaped garden. The kitchen was a separate building, joined to the house by a covered porch. Other outbuildings included a two-story servant house, smokehouse, well, wash house, barn and cow shed. The house was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972.

SIDE 2:
THE ELMS
Lambert Spencer moved to Columbus from Talbot County, Maryland in 1828. He purchased twelve acres from William L. Wynn in 1844. Henson G. Estes later received the property from Spencer. In 1862, Lloyd Guyton Bowers, a cotton broker, traveled from Massachusetts to Macon, Georgia, where he married Sarah Tabitha Bartlett. The Bowers soon moved to Columbus and purchased The Elms. The house remained in the Bowers family until 1966 and was then purchased by Allen M. Woodall, Jr. In 1999, Mrs. Maxwell C. Harden, daughter of local builder Thomas Watson Cooper, returned to Columbus and purchased The Elms for her home.

THE J.S. PEMBERTON & THE CONFEDERACY

SIDE 1

THE J.S. Pemberton & the Confederacy

Location: GA side of the 14th Street Pedestrian Bridge
Erected by Historic Columbus Foundation, Inc. and The Historic Chattahoochee Commission 2015

"John Pemberton joined the 3rd Georgia Cavalry in May 1862 and resigned in October that same year due to “a chronic disease of the stomach,” his life-long malady. He wrote he could better serve his country as a pharmacist and chemist. In July 1863, he joined the home guard and commanded a cavalry unit at the Battle of Columbus, where he suffered a saber gash and a pistol wound. Despite his injuries, within seven months he reopened his pharmacy and launched a large wholesale drug warehouse. He operated both until he left for Atlanta in 1869.

SIDE 2

THE "FORMULA"

Location: GA side of the 14th Street Pedestrian Bridge
Erected by Historic Columbus Foundation, Inc. and The Historic Chattahoochee Commission 2015

The popular Vin Mariani wine, infused with extract of coca leaves, began selling worldwide in 1863. Dr. Pemberton used this tonic to relieve pain from stomach cancer, intestinal disorders, and wounds. He modified Mariani’s drink to produce French Wine of Coca, the predecessor to Coca-Cola The Coca-Cola Company now recognizes Pemberton mixed the prototype formula in Columbus and then brought it to Atlanta. The 1885 prohibition law in Atlanta forced him to remove the wine from his tonic. Pemberton added sweeteners and an extract of kola nuts to create Coca-Cola. Erected by Historic Columbus Foundation, Inc. and The Historic Chattahoochee Commission 2015

THE LEDGER-ENQUIRER NEWSPAPERS

THE LEDGER-ENQUIRER NEWSPAPERS

Location: Twelfth Street near Front Street, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1986
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the R. W. Page Corporation, 1986

The Ledger-Enquirer Newspapers
The Columbus Enquirer and The Columbus Ledger have been published from this site since 1930. The Enquirer was founded in 1828 by Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar, later the second president of the Republic of Texas. The Ledger was founded in 1886 by Edward T. Byington and his wife, Elia G. Byington. In 1893, The Ledger was purchased by Rinaldo William Page. The Page family purchased The Enquirer in 1930 and owned both newspapers until they were sold to Knight Newspapers, Inc., now Knight-Ridder, Inc., in 1973. Both have won the Pulitzer Prize for Public Service, journalism's highest award, The Enquirer in 1926 and The Ledger in 1955. The Mditerranean-style building was completed in 1930 and placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1981.

THE RANKIN HOUSE

THE RANKIN HOUSE

Location: 1440 Second Avenue, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 2000
Erected by the Historic Columbus Foundation, Inc.; Descendants of James A. Rankin; and the Historic Chattahoochee Commission, 2000

SIDE 1:
The Rankin House
James A. Rankin came to Columbus from yrshire, Scotland and in 1839 married Agnes Affleck. Mr. Rankin was a planter and owner of the Rankin Hotel and Rankin Realty Co. This high style Italianate mansion was built between 1860 and 1870. Lawrence Wimberly Wall was the architect. In 1898, the Rankin House, valued at $18,500, was the finest home in Columbus. After the Civil War, Mr. Rankin returned to Scotland and turned the home over to his eldest child, Mrs. Emma Jane Rankin Lockhart. Two of his sons, Edwin and John A. became prominent local businessmen. Granddaughters of James A. Rankin, Mrs. George Walden and Mrs. Albert Driver, lived in the home until the 1950's.

SIDE 2:
The Rankin House
Miss Emily Woodruff donated the house to the Historic Columbus Foundation, Inc. as a memorial to her father, James Waldo Woodruff, Sr. The courtyard is a memorial to Charlie Frank Williams, Sr. Restoration and furnishing were accomplished through the Foundation, the Junior League of Columbus and the Columbus Town Committee of The National Society of The Colonial Dames of America. The fence formerly surrounded the Broadway townhouse of Civil War General Henry Lewis Benning.

TRINITY EPISCOPAL CHURCH

TRINITY EPISCOPAL CHURCH

Location: 1100 block of First Avenue, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1989
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and Trinity Episcopal Church, 1989

SIDE 1:
Trinity Episcopal Church
The cornerstone of Trinity Episcopal Church was laid in 1890. The present church replaced the congregation's first building, which stood across the street at 1140 First Avenue. Since its founding in 1834, Trinity has held regular worship services in Columbus. The church added a parish house in 1925-26, with further expansion completed in 1965. Trinity serves the oldest and largest Episcopal congregation in Columbus. The only Gothic Revival church in the city, it possesses architectural significance that shows kinshi to English countryside churches; Gothic arches and a square bell tower are distinctive features.

SIDE 2:
Trinity Episcopal Church
The nave seats five hundred. Stained glass memorial windows and marble floors enhance the dignified reverence of the setting. Two large brass chandeliers, originally gas burning, light the nave. Lewis C. Allen and H. H. McClintock served as first Wardens. The Vestry included E. L. DeGraffenried, Charles A. Peabody, John Forsyth, Jr., John A. Urquhart, George Hargraves, Jr., John E. Davis, and Mr. Lively. One of Columbus' founders, Dr. DeGraffenried, held the charter meeting of the church in his home on First Avenue, then Oglethorpe Street, a site now owned by the Church.

VICTORY DRIVE

VICTORY DRIVE

Location: 3662 Victory Drive, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: June 14, 2008
Marker Text: Victory Drive
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Victory Coalition 2008

On August 15, 1945, celebrating the surrender of Japan which ended World War II, the Muscogee County Commission unanimously voted to rename the boulevard extending from Columbus to Fort Benning as Victory Drive. Commissioner L.R. Aldridge state, "No time could be more appropriate than the day following the night when we know victory is ours." Ft. Benning Commanding General William H. Hobson responded to the gesture: "We believe that so designating the highway as 'Victory Drive' will be long-lived testimonial to the men and women of Georgia, and the men and women who have trained at Fort Benning during World War II, for their contributions to Victory."

 

W. C. Bradley and Coca-Cola

W. C. Bradley and Coca-Cola

Location: 1017 Front Avenue, Columbus, GA 31901
Erected by Historic Columbus Foundation, Inc. and The Historic Chattahoochee Commission 2015

SIDE 1:
WC BRADELY AND COCA COLA
W. C. Bradley was a Columbus cotton merchant, industrialist, banker, and one of the city’s leading entrepreneurs. He also helped form a business syndicate with Ernest Woodruff to purchase Coca-Cola from the Candlers in 1919. This group organized a new Coca-Cola Corporation and issued its first public stock. Bradley bought a large number of shares but also sold shares to local and out-of-state friends and fellow bankers. Bradley became Chairman of the Coca-Cola Board in 1919 and served for twenty-seven years.

SIDE 2:
WC BRADELY AND COCA COLA

(Depiction of a meeting of the Coca-Cola board in the late 1930s)

Coca-Cola Board of Directors, late 1930s. W. C. Bradley sits at the head of the table as chairman with his son-in-law, D. Abbott Turner fourth from his left and Robert Woodruff, President, on his immediate left. Robert’s father, Ernest Woodruff, is seated fourth from Mr. Bradley’s right.

Supplemental material
Bradley was crucial in selling stock to New York City bankers at this point and in later securing loans from them when the young company needed capital. The most legendary sales of Coke stock were made by banker Pat Monroe in Quincy, Florida. Monroe and Bradley were friends, both having served on the board of the Eagle & Phenix Mills in Columbus. Bradley thoroughly convinced Monroe of the value of the Coca-Cola Company. Monroe strongly suggested to every loan customer in his bank to buy Coke stock, and even loaned them the money to make the purchase. These Floridians held on to their Coke stock through all of its splits, and today Quincy is one of the wealthiest towns per capita in the nation. In a 1976 interview with D. Abbot Turner, Bradley’s son-in-law, he was asked to comment on Bradley’s skill as a business man. Turner simply said, “Coca-Cola.” Even when the question was rephrased, the answer was always the same, “Coca-Cola.”

WALKER-PETERS-LANGDON HOUSE

WALKER-PETERS-LANGDON HOUSE

Location: 716 Broadway, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: March 25, 1981
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Historic Columbus Foundation, 1980

Walker-Peters-Langdon House
Moveable, prefabricated houses similar to this Federal Cottage were available for purchase by settlers participating in the Land Lot Sale of 1828. Original owner, Colonel Virgil Walker of Harris County, transferred the lot and "all improvements" to Mrs. Dicey Peters, mother of Mrs. William Langdon. Six generations of the Langdon Family subsequently owned the house, traditionally known as the oldest in Columbus. The Historic Columbus Foundation acquired the property in 1966.

WILLIAM H. SPENCER HIGH SCHOOL

WILLIAM H. SPENCER HIGH SCHOOL

Location: 800 Tenth Avenue, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1990
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Muscogee County School District, 1990

William H. Spencer High School
On this site, on November 29, 1930, the first local high school for colored students opened. The school was the result of a grant from the Rosenwald Foundation and was named in honor of William Henry Spencer, Supervisor of the Colored Schools in Muscogee County from 1912-1925. The first principal was Professor F. R. Lampkin, who also served as Supervisor of Colored Schools in Muscogee County from 1930-1945. The teaching staff consisted of 15 members. T. Hicks Fort was President of the Board of Education.

WOODRUFF FARM HOUSE AND LOG CABIN

WOODRUFF FARM HOUSE AND LOG CABIN

Location: 708 Broadway, Columbus, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: January 1, 1988
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Historic Columbus Foundation, 1988 

Woodruff Farm House and Log Cabin
The 1840's Woodruff Farm House was originally located eight miles east of Columbus on land adjoining the old road to Macon, Georgia. The dwelling was enlarged and used as a summer residence by the Woodruff family during the 1920's. When development endangered this structure, it was donated to the Historic Columbus Foundation and placed on this site in 1986. Moved from its original location ten miles from this site, the cabin on this lot is an example of the kind of log building used by traders in the early 1800's, prior to the settlement of Columbus in 1828.