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Clay County

1814 BOUNDARY

1814 BOUNDARY

Location: Georgia Highway 39, North of Fort Gaines, Georgia, at East bank of the Chattahoochee River, Lake W.F. George.
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: August 6, 1989
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Fort Gaines High School Class of '39.

SIDE 1:
The boundary line defined in the Treaty of Fort Jackson (August 1814) between the confederated Creek tribes and the United States extended eastward from the mouth of Cemochechobee Creek south of here to a point near Jesup, Georgia. Signed by General Andrew Jackson for the U.S. and Tustennuggee Thlocco (Big Warrior) and Tustennuggee Hopie (Little Prince) for the Creeks, the treaty ceded about 23 million acres of land and was intended to separate hostile Indians from British forces in Florida during the War of 1812.

SIDE 2:
FOUNDING OF FORT GAINES
A military garrison, later named Fort Gaines, was established on the Chattahoochee River to patrol the buffer against the British and hostile Indians created by the land ceded in the Treaty of Fort Jackson. Benjamin Hawkins, venerable Indian agent to the southern tribes, and troops commanded by Coweta Chief William McIntosh had the task of enforcing General Jackson's prohibition of any Indian entering the newly acquired territory. His orders were that "all persons carrying and bringing lies" to the British would be shot. He believed Oketeyeconne and Hitchiti towns near here were havens for spies.

MT GILEAD BAPTIST CHURCH FORT GAINES, GEORGIA

MT GILEAD BAPTIST CHURCH FORT GAINES, GEORGIA

Location: Cotton Hill Road in Fort Gaines, Georgia.
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: July 13, 2003
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Mt. Gilead Baptist Church, 2002.

This church was constituted on July 21, 1822, under the leadership of the Reverend Jim Davis, when Fort Gaines was part of Early County. Land for the church was donated and deeded by J. Hugh Edge. The first building, which also served as a schoolhouse, was constructed of hand-hewn logs. In 1839, Mt. Gilead joined the Bethel Baptist Association in Americus, Georgia. Included on the five acre church property is a cemetery with the earliest grave dating from 1865. A baptismal pool, inscribed with the date of 1828, is located across the road from the present church building and is still being used.

NEW LOWELL UNITED METHODIST CHURCH

NEW LOWELL UNITED METHODIST CHURCH

Location: County Road 129 2.6 miles West of Georgia Highway 39. 12.4 miles north of Fort Gaines Courthouse Dedication
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: May 25, 1986
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the New Lowell United Methodist Church, 1986.

SIDE 1:
Methodist Episcopal Church worship services were conducted in this area during the early 1840's in a brush arbor. The original church, known as Lowell, was destroyed by fire during the Civil War. From 1865 to 1890 the Methodists and Baptists worshiped together at Union Church at Midway and later at Salem Church. The present church was built in 1900 from virgin pine and the interior still contains the original pews, pulpit and altar rail. On January 9, 1901 the church was deeded as a place of worship by W. T. Credille. The trustees were E. A. Standley, E. D. Griffin and J. A. Wash. The church became a charge of the Fort Gaines Circuit July 22, 1903.

SIDE 2:
NEW LOWELL SCHOOL
This area was settled about 1820 along the falls of Pataula Creek in a community known as Lowell. The falls provided water power for several commercial enterprises including a saw mill, cotton gin and grist mill. The community was later known as Garfield. Grades one through ten attended the school in the school house which was built circa 1890. Classes were for 10-25 children who performed housekeeping and janitorial duties as well as school work. The last class was held in 1921. The schoolhouse was also used as a center for social functions and as a place of worship. About 1900 the community became known as Gilbert and later as Credille's Mill.

OAKLAND HIGH SCHOOL

OAKLAND HIGH SCHOOL

Location: U.S. Highway 27, ½ mile South of Sutton’s Crossroads in Clay County, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: March 6, 2004
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commissionand Students, Family and Friends of Oakland High School, 2004.

Founded in the 1880's Oakland High School's name was derived from oak trees which grewin abundance at this location when the school building was constructed. The school originally had 10 grades. Mrs. Arlene Newton Richardson taught here from 1908 to 1912 and established the first home economics course taught in southwest Georgia. Students participated in the course from as far away as Columbus and Macon, Georgia. Six students comprised the last graduating class in 1929. The next year Oakland became a junior high school. It closed its doors in 1937 when classes were consolidated with Fort Gaines High School. The old school building was demolished in 1957.

OKETEYECONNE

OKETEYECONNE

Location: Georgia Highway 39, North of Fort Gaines, Georgia. East bank of the Chattahoochee River, Lake W.F. George
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: August 6, 1989
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Fort Gaines High School Class of 1938. Erected in 1989.

SIDE 1:
Oketeyeconne, or Okitiyakani, was a Hitchiti-speaking Lower Creek town located near here on the east bank of the Chattahoochee River south of Sandy Creek during the late frontier period. Described in 1799 by Benjamin Hawkins, "… the little village, Oketeyeconne, is situated on good land….From this village they have settlements down as low as the forks of the river….They raise plenty of corn and rice and have cattle, horses and hogs."
As the southernmost of the main towns on the Chattahoochee, the people shared affiliations with—to the north—the predominantly Muskogee-speaking Creek Confederation and a Hitchiti ‘mother town' and – to the south—Hitchiti-speaking towns of the Sawokli, Tamathli, Apalachicola, Yamasee, Mikasuki and other Seminoles.

Though peaceful and considered friendly by the Americans, many of the Lower Creeks and Seminoles had strong ties to the British from Revolutionary War service and trade. Distressed by continual encroachments of white settlers, the American war against the Red Sticks faction of the Upper Creeks, and a severe shortage of food, Lower Creeks and Seminoles led by William and Thomas Perryman appealed to the British and Spanish for arms and supplies in September 1813.

SIDE 2:
CHATTAHOOCHEE THEATER
William and Thomas Perryman became leaders of the war faction of the Lower Creeks and Seminoles. Their settlement, known as Perryman, on the Chattahoochee above the Flint became headquarters for the ‘Hostiles'. Their relative, James Perryman, was chief of Oketeyeconne.
The Creek Indians’ requests for aid suggested to the British high command a strategy of using privilegeless groups such as Indians, slaves, and pirates in the Gulf region to divert American forces from Canada. The Creeks indicated that contact could be maintained with the Four Nations -- Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Cherokees -- from Apalachicola Bay. Thus the Chattahoochee became central to British invasion plans. Upon arrival with munitions at Apalachicola in May 1814, the British found many starving Red Stick refugees who had come there following their defeat by Jackson at Horseshoe Bend in March.

People from Oketeyeconne were prominent among those being armed. Hawkins reported: "They gave four kegs of cartridges of 100 lbs each to Oketeyeconne and Tuttallossee and some arms, short rifles and others." Receiving such reports, Jackson demanded a huge land cession, mostly from his Lower Creek allies, with the line strategically located just south of Oketeyeconne to suppress the insurgency.

OLD PIONEER CEMETERY

OLD PIONEER CEMETERY
Location: Carroll Street, Fort Gaines, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: July 3, 1982
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission, 1980.

This was the first established cemetery of Fort Gaines. The earliest death date on a stone marker is 1830. The tombs of Georgia Militia General John Dill and his family are found in an enclosed lot. Reverend John E. Brown, second president of the University of Georgia, and his wife are interred in this graveyard. Many early settlers, both black and white, are buried here in unmarked graves.

Site of the First Clay County Courthouse and Jail

THE 1836 FORT

Location: Located at 105 West Jefferson Street, Fort Gaines, GA
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: 2014
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission, the McAllister Family, and the Fort Gaines-Clay County Historical Society.

When Clay County was created February 16, 1854, Fort Gaines became the county seat. The county’s first courthouse, a single- room, wooden structure, was built on this lot later that year. The county’s first jail was located to the north on an adjoining lot. After construction of a larger courthouse in 1873, the original courthouse served as a school, and in 1897 underwent remodeling to be included as the kitchen of the R.C. and Susie McAllister home. It remains a portion of this private home.

THE 1836 FORT

THE 1836 FORT

Location: Off Georgia Highway 39, on the bluff overlooking the Chattahoochee River in Fort Gaines, Georgia.
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: July 4, 1996
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission, Local Color Publishers and "Tale of the Naked Hitchhiker" 1996.

In May of 1836 the 88th Regiment of the Georgia Militia built a small fort in anticipation of an attack by the Creek Indians. The Steamer GEORGIAN had arrived crowded with women and children fleeing from the Indian uprising at Roanoke upriver. The Steamer ANNA CALHOUN was pressed for 5,000 pounds of bacon and 8 barrels of flour in order to feed the refugees and militia. The uprising was quelled before the fighting reached Fort Gaines. This was one of the last major insurgences of the Creeks before their removal to the West.

THE OLD LATTICE BRIDGE

THE OLD LATTICE BRIDGE

Location: Near the old toll house on the east bank of the Chattahoochee River, Bluff Street, Fort Gaines, Georgia.
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: December 3, 1997
Dedication date: December 3, 1987.

SIDE 1:
The second covered bridge across the Chattahoochee River connecting Clay County, Georgia and Henry County, Alabama, was constructed between 1867-69. Bonner and Walden, a New York construction company, were the original contractors but the bridge was completed by Horace King. After the three, span bridge collapsed during the flood of March 1875, the original stockholders relinquished control of the structure to the City of Fort Gaines on the condition that the city should rebuild at the public expense. A $7,500 bond issue was floated and the bridge was rebuilt by Captain B. B. McKenzie of Eufaula, Alabama.

SIDE 2:
Following the reopening of the covered bridge in 1875, the City of Fort Gaines considered levying ad valorem taxes to help retire the bridge repair bond issue. Angry property owners proposed that the city sell the bridge to any person who would guarantee to retire the bonds. After considerable debate, the bridge was sold to David C. Adams who realized a handsome profit on his investment. The flood of March 1888 partially destroyed the bridge again and it was resold to the city of $5,000. The bridge was then rebuilt by William King, son of Horace King. The covered bridge was in use until 1925 when the Henry-Clay cantilever bridge was opened.

 

TONEY-STANDLEY HOUSE

TONEY-STANDLEY HOUSE

Location: County Road 135, West of Georgia Highway 39 - 9 miles north of Fort Gaines, Georgia
Marker Dedication or Erection Date: September 28, 1980
Erected by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission, 1980.

SIDE 1:
Local tradition maintains that the Toney-Standley House was built about 1803 by Mr. William Toney. It is reputed that on two occasions Toney had as his overnight guest Aaron Burr, third Vice-President of the United States. Legend has it that Burr stopped here while fleeing to Florida in 1804 and in 1807 after he was arrested for treason by General Edmund Pendleton Gaines.

SIDE 2:
TONEY-STANDLEY HOUSE
In 1959, the Toney-Standley House was moved from its original site, near Sandy Creek, to its present location. This Plantation Plain style structure is similar to the other early homes built in the Chattahoochee River Valley of Alabama and Georgia. On September 7, 1974, it was placed on the National Register of Historic Places by the United States Department of the Interior.